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Thread: Commonly Used LED Emitter Index

  1. #1
    Flashaholic* csshih's Avatar
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    Default Commonly Used LED Emitter Index

    note: please do NOT copy this article without permission. All images are the sole property of their respective owners.

    Because of thisthread, I've decided to do a formal writeup on the most popular LEDs used in flashlights to try to inform the learning flashaholics.

    I placed this thread in the LED flashlight section so it is easier to find, and as it's more geared towards flashlight discussion.

    More information will be added as more LEDs and manufacturers emerge, and as more people chime in on details I may have missed.
    ... still a work in progress!

    Let's start with some popular manufacturers, then we'll go into further detail on the emitters themselves.

    Cree Inc - Founded 1987 in North Carolina
    Edison Opto Corporation - Founded 2001 in Taiwan
    LedEngin, Inc. - Founded 2004 in California
    Nichia Corporation - Founded 1956 in Japan
    OSRAM Opto Semiconductors - Founded 1999 in Germany (joint venture between Osram and Infineon Technologies)
    Philips LumiLEDs - Founded 1999 in California (joint venture between Philips and Agilent Technologies)
    Seoul Semiconductor Co., Ltd - Founded 1992 in Korea
    Luminus Devices - Founded 2002 in Massachusetts

    There are many other LED manufacturers, but they are usually either not used in flashlights, not specified by manufacturers (i.e. "no-name" brand flashlights with "generic" LEDs), or only specialize in lower power emitters.

    Now, onto the LEDs themselves. LEDs are ordered by date introduced unless otherwise noted

    Important stuff below.
    For a quick look at some LEDs, technical wise -- take a look at this ---> link <--- quit staring at the shiny pictures of the emitters and get to the good technical stuff! and another useful thread to Bin Codes And Tints, here!
    It includes Thermal resistance, Chip size, max rated current, max rated output, efficacy, Viewing angle, Forward, Voltage, notes, and a link to the spec sheet.

    Some quick terms:

    Emitter/Package: The entire LED itself, which does not include the star or board it may be mounted to.
    Die: The Chip inside the LED -- the light producing portion.
    Bond Wires: Wires (usually gold) that connect the die to the "-" and "+" contacts.
    Phosphor: (usually talking about white LEDs) A coating on top of the die which converts light emitted by the Die to a different color.

    Cree Inc-

    Cree X-Lamp (entire category of LEDs -- not all have been used in flashlights and will be omitted.

    XR-E 7090

    EZ1000 on the left, newer EZ900 on the right.
    Neutral/Warm Tints Available, Common Neutral tints are found in the Q3/Q4 flux bin

    The Cree XR-E was the LED that pretty much started it all-- it had twice the efficacy of other comparable emitters out on the market at the time, and it also led to the release of the Seoul P4 -- a lower cost emitter utilizing the same die, the EZ1000.
    The XR-E LED package consists of the chip on a ceramic package, 4 bond wires in total(note: some of the older and lower binned XR-Es had 3 bond wires), and optical grade silicone keeping the glass dome in place. There is a metal ring around the glass dome, but, the dome is still rather easily knocked off. In addition, the metal ring often caused the infamous "Cree Ring", a darker ring around the hotspot.

    XR-C

    Nothing much to say here, The XR-C is identical in size to the XR-E, and was developed as a cheaper alternative to the XR-E. The chip inside the package, though, is smaller, and there are only 2 bond wires in total. This results in a higher forward voltage, which equates to less efficacy. Only a few "brick and mortar" lights use this emitter.

    MC-E
    image courtesy of gopajti!
    Neutral/Warm Tints Available.
    The Cree MC-E LED is a quad die LED, consisting of 4 EZ1000 LEDs mounted inside one package. It was released as a competitor to the Seoul P7. Whereas the P7 is wired up in parallel, the Cree MC-E's dies are is individually configurable, though most flashlight manufacturers will wire it up in parallel anyways. The MC-E's package is roughly the same size as a XR-E, and the dome is the same size. In flashlights, the MC-E offers a very high output solution, though the spacing of the 4 dies often leads to a "donut hole" a drop in output in the center of the beam. Throw based lights will have this effect exaggerated.

    MC-E RGBW
    image courtesy of gopajti!
    The Cree MC-E RGBW is identical to the standard MC-E in package, but the dies have been replaced with differently colored ones. The only flashlight uses this emitter at the moment is the Quark RGB.

    XP-E
    image courtesy of gopajti!
    Neutral/Warm Tints Available, Common Neutral tints are found in the Q3/Q4 flux bin
    The Cree XP-E was released after the MC-E as a competitor to the Luxeon Rebel, and to offer roughly the same efficacy of the Cree XR-E in a much smaller package. It also does not have a Ring, thus removing the problem of the "Cree Ring" (a darker ring around the hotspot).
    The XP-E has a larger viewing angle than the Cree XR-E, thus cannot effectively replace the XR-E in thrower applications.

    XP-C
    image courtesy of gopajti!
    The Cree XP-C was created for pretty much the same reason as the XR-C, lower cost, with the sacrifice of efficacy.

    XP-G
    image courtesy of gopajti!
    Neutral Tint Available.
    The Cree XP-G is a highly efficient single die emitter in a very small package -- it's physically the same size as the Cree XP-E, but has a much larger die size.. 1.4mm^2 as opposed to .98mm^2. As a result, it is harder to focus the light coming from this LED, the viewing angle is 125° compared to the 110 of an XP-E, and 90 of an XR-E.

    XM-L

    (image by cmaccel)


    The Cree XM-L is single die emitter, but it is even larger than the XP-G's die! featuring a 2mmx2mm squared die, this emitter is even more efficient than the SST-50, even though luminus' dies are 2.5x2.55mm!

    Cree has since updated their emitters with gen2 - XP-E2, XP-G2, XM-L2.
    They also have bigger die emitters, similar to Luminous ones.
    The MT-G2 emitter is one that is showing up in a few flashlights.

    I have not had time to update this index for a while, but there should be an overhaul next month.
    -Craig


    Edison Opto Corporation-

    edison creates many "budget" emitters, they often look very similar to current offerings from philips lumileds, but with different performance.

    LedEngin, Inc.-

    Ledengin makes larger LEDs, and were the first to make a high power rgb led I believe.


    Nichia Corporation- lot's of 5mms!
    NSPW500GS-K1 - one elongated die in a single T1-3/4 (5mm) package. Most 5mms will look identical, thus, a picture will not be provided.
    The Nichia "GS" LED is one of the most commonly used 5mms in higher quality flashlights. Some recent examples include Fenix and Arc flashlights.

    OSRAM Opto Semiconductors-

    Golden Dragon (domed)
    image by osram

    image by timmyns.
    note the 2nd die in the corner.. a red diode that lights up when voltage is reversed. ra twisties use this feature for a low red.

    Golden Dragon Plus


    These emitters are slightly lower performing than Cree's XR-E (and subsequently their better offerings), but they have supposedly better tint and beam profiles.

    Diamond Dragon

    the high current version of the GDP. I don't know much about these emitters are they are not used in flashlights often.


    Ostar

    These high performance emitters can now be considered outdated.. I believe the Ostar came out before the Seoul P7 and Cree MC-E. These emitters run extremely hot and have a very high forward voltage.. not easily implemented in flashlights.

    Ostar SMT

    Newer Version of the 6 Die ostar. I don't have enough experience with these to write a good summary.

    Philips LumiLEDs-

    The original high power LEDs that started it all! The Lux I/III/V can all be summarized as being rugged, and bright (for their time).. except for the tint lottery.. purples and blues... much worse than what we have today.

    Luxeon I (side emitting and lambertian available)


    Luxeon III


    Luxeon V


    Luxeon K2, 1x1 mm^2 chip


    Thin Film Flip Chip (TFFC*), 5.5 °C/W, 1x1 mm^2 chip
    Color K2, image courtesy of gopajti!

    Luxeon Rebel**


    Thin Film Flip Chip (TFFC*),
    Color Rebels, image courtesy of gopajti!

    ** Philips had a bad batch of TTFC chips affecting up to 5% of purchasers in January 22, 2008. The epoxy underfill was contaminated, which would cause the die to crack. Production resumed in March 2008. [source]
    *** The Luxeon Rebel TFFC was released before the K2 TFFC

    Seoul Semiconductor Co., Ltd-

    P4
    image courtesy of gopajti!

    Narrower angles available.
    Neutral and High CRI tint bins Available

    P7


    Luminus Devices-

    SST-50

    image provided by download
    image courtesy of gopajti!

    SST-90
    image courtesy of gopajti!

    SST-90 Color
    image courtesy of gopajti!

    I want to thank saablusterfor his help with some details, and illumfor his help with his emitter pictures.

    I regret that I am not able to credit everyone about their emitter pics, but it was difficult to find the original owners. If any don't want their picture posted, please, don't hesitate to say so.
    Last edited by csshih; 06-30-2013 at 01:43 AM. Reason: adding more information.

  2. #2
    Flashaholic COAST's Avatar
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    Default Re: Commonly Used LED Emitter Index

    You made it!
    Quark 123^2 Turbo: Quark 123^2 Tactical S2: Quark 123 Tactical S2: Quark 123^2 NW Regular: Fenix PD30 R2: Fenix L2D Q5: Solarforce L2 w/ Nailbender SST-90 drop-in: Incendio v2: Inova X1: Robert's Custom EDC: HDS Ra Clicky 140E w/ blk SS bezel

  3. #3
    Flashaholic* csshih's Avatar
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    Default Re: Commonly Used LED Emitter Index

    yup! I hope this helps people.

  4. #4
    Flashaholic* SuperTrouper's Avatar
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    Default Re: Commonly Used LED Emitter Index

    Cool macro shots there! Great having all these in one place for reference!

  5. #5
    Enlightened
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    Default Re: Commonly Used LED Emitter Index

    Awesome thread! There should be an LED 101 sticky for noobs like me A lot easier than sifting through years of threads like I have been doing for months

  6. #6
    Flashaholic* saabluster's Avatar
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    Default Re: Commonly Used LED Emitter Index

    I have some XP-C if you want shots of those.

  7. #7
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    Default Re: Commonly Used LED Emitter Index

    awesome job! This will save me alota time searching through ancient threads!

  8. #8
    Flashaholic kingofwylietx's Avatar
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    Default Re: Commonly Used LED Emitter Index

    Great info for us new guys. I vote for a sticky.

  9. #9
    Flashaholic* don.gwapo's Avatar
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    Default Re: Commonly Used LED Emitter Index

    Thanks for those photos. All I need to do is get a magnifying glass and check my light for what emitter they have.

  10. #10
    Flashaholic* csshih's Avatar
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    Default Re: Commonly Used LED Emitter Index

    Quote Originally Posted by saabluster View Post
    I have some XP-C if you want shots of those.
    yes please!

    most of the photos are not mine, feel free to ask for credit if I used one of yours.

  11. #11
    Flashaholic* rayman's Avatar
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    Default Re: Commonly Used LED Emitter Index

    Great thread . Still learned something. Didn't know what XR-C were. I knew that they look like XR-E but I didn't know that they are identical with just a smaller die.

    rayman
    My Lights (current favourite: Maglite 2D XM-L2 mod; current EDC: Olight i1 SS)

  12. #12
    Flashaholic* csshih's Avatar
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    Default Re: Commonly Used LED Emitter Index

    and only 2 bond wires, too! (creating higher Vf, I believe)

    a few B&M lights use those.

  13. #13
    Flashaholic* download's Avatar
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    Default Re: Commonly Used LED Emitter Index


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    *Flashaholic* kramer5150's Avatar
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    Default Re: Commonly Used LED Emitter Index

    .. and to further complicate things there are 2 different dies for the XR-E. The larger EZ-1000 pictured above and the smaller EZ-900. The Flux BINs are the same for each however.

    Let me know if you want a pic of the XP-C... although its nothing to get excited over. If anything, its an emitter you should probably avoid. its die surface is really small, but unfortunately surface brightness is very low so the net result is low Lumens and low lux.
    Last edited by kramer5150; 04-13-2010 at 11:21 AM.
    CLICK HERE for my flashlight reviews.
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  15. #15

    Default Re: Commonly Used LED Emitter Index

    Something seems a bit wonky with the die dimensions of the SST90. It states it as having 9 times the dimension each way compared to the XR-E. This would make 81 times the surface area?

    The SST90's datasheet states that the emitting surface area is only 3000 um x 3000 um.

    Same with the SST50, the die dimensions should be 2250x2250 um.
    Last edited by Popsiclestix; 04-13-2010 at 01:10 PM.

  16. #16
    Enlightened Frank88's Avatar
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    Default Re: Commonly Used LED Emitter Index

    This thread (while still in construction) should be sticky and improved, it's a real good idea to have all thoses emitter pictures.


  17. #17
    *Flashaholic* Gunner12's Avatar
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    Default Re: Commonly Used LED Emitter Index

    This is a great idea! A lot of work though.

    Maybe you can also add a link to the the Bin code thread.

  18. #18
    Flashaholic* csshih's Avatar
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    Default Re: Commonly Used LED Emitter Index

    Quote Originally Posted by Popsiclestix View Post
    Something seems a bit wonky with the die dimensions of the SST90. It states it as having 9 times the dimension each way compared to the XR-E. This would make 81 times the surface area?

    The SST90's datasheet states that the emitting surface area is only 3000 um x 3000 um.

    Same with the SST50, the die dimensions should be 2250x2250 um.
    oops.. it was in my head that a SST90 was a 9mm die so I wrote 9mx9mm.. .. correcting now!

  19. #19
    Flashaholic
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    Default Re: Commonly Used LED Emitter Index

    Wow, nice work! This should definitely be a sticky; it's very useful.

  20. #20
    *Flashaholic* StarHalo's Avatar
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    Default Re: Commonly Used LED Emitter Index

    How about noting which emitters are available in and/or are more commonly used for a warm emitter, like Cree's Q3 bin of the XR-E?

  21. #21
    Flashaholic* csshih's Avatar
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    Default Re: Commonly Used LED Emitter Index

    updated with suggestions, corrections,

    kramer -- I had the ez900/1000 note in the other link, but forgot to provide an image .. oops!

    yeah, I want a picture of the XP-C so people that do have them know about them

  22. #22
    Flashaholic* saabluster's Avatar
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    Default Re: Commonly Used LED Emitter Index

    Quote Originally Posted by csshih View Post
    updated with suggestions, corrections,

    kramer -- I had the ez900/1000 note in the other link, but forgot to provide an image .. oops!

    yeah, I want a picture of the XP-C so people that do have them know about them


    Also I noticed you had the lumen output of the R2 bin XR-E listed around 250 @1A when it should be about 275.

  23. #23
    *Flashaholic* kramer5150's Avatar
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    Default Re: Commonly Used LED Emitter Index

    thanks sasbluster... I couldn't get s clear pic of it.

    thanks for doing this Craig
    CLICK HERE for my flashlight reviews.
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  24. #24
    Flashaholic* csshih's Avatar
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    Default Re: Commonly Used LED Emitter Index

    Quote Originally Posted by saabluster View Post
    Also I noticed you had the lumen output of the R2 bin XR-E listed around 250 @1A when it should be about 275.
    thank you for the pic!
    woah... 1 bond wire.

    using Cree's product characterization tool, it says 250.8 lumens @ 1A?

  25. #25
    Flashaholic
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    Default Re: Commonly Used LED Emitter Index

    The MC-E looks so cool

  26. #26
    Flashaholic headophile's Avatar
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    Default Re: Commonly Used LED Emitter Index

    very convenient source of info and pics

  27. #27
    Flashaholic* saabluster's Avatar
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    Default Re: Commonly Used LED Emitter Index

    Quote Originally Posted by csshih View Post
    thank you for the pic!
    woah... 1 bond wire.

    using Cree's product characterization tool, it says 250.8 lumens @ 1A?
    Your welcome. I don't know why that tool is not working right. I tried it myself and I got the same thing. It seems buggy though. At one point it said it was on XR-E but the figures I saw had to be from the MC-E. Either way we have the tests from jtr1962 which both agree that it can do 270-275.

  28. #28
    Flashaholic* csshih's Avatar
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    Default Re: Commonly Used LED Emitter Index

    ah, I see! I'll get the specs changed tomorrow

  29. #29

    Default Re: Commonly Used LED Emitter Index

    Cree XLamp XR-E (R2 WG)



    Cree XLamp XP-C, XP-E, XP-G



    Cree XLamp XP-C Color, MP-L EasyWhite



    Cree XLamp MC-E & MC-E RGBW



    Luminus PhlatLight LED SST-50, SST-90 & SST-90 Color series



    Seoul Semiconductor Z-Power LED P4, P5-II, P7 + P4-P7




    Osram Oslon SSL



    Lumileds LUXEON Rebel & K2 (TFFC)





    Nichia NFS, NCS, NS6

    Last edited by gopajti; 04-18-2010 at 09:25 AM.

  30. #30
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    Default Re: Commonly Used LED Emitter Index

    Very useful thread by csshih, with some excellent pics added by gopajti in the post just above this one.

    I'll leave the thread here in the LED Flashlights section for a while, conscious that some members don't visit the LED (emitters) section too often. (why not, guys? )

    I'm adding it to the "Threads of Interest" stickies both here and in LED.
    Resistance is futile...

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