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Thread: Hybrid installation (wind turbine + PV panels) Renewable energy sources by Bocian

  1. #1
    Join Date
    Jan 2014

    Default Hybrid installation (wind turbine + PV panels) Renewable energy sources by Bocian

    Hi guys. I know that mostly You try to transform electrical energy into light but here is completelly otherwise Below is just simple translation from Polish. original thread is here:
    and if you have any question, just ask.

    Welcome after a long break on the subject of alternative power I will start with what has changed in the solar section. Let me remind you that PV is four panels in a total of 980Wp (two separately routed circuits after 490Wp). Below is a list of changes from those described earlier in the following thread:

    - switching to a 2s connection (ie two panels in series = higher voltage, less losses on wires). This was not the main reason because the wires from the panels and so are 6mm2 cross-section. The main reasons below.
    - Steca battery charger 24V PWM Steca replaced MPPT Tracer 30A (Steca has been on it later

    - In-grid inverter Enecsys unfortunately I was forced to replace (Enecsys beat by accident: roll: and repairing this equipment in Poland is a weak thing). In its place hit an on-grid inverter with a power of 1kW as below:

    - AGM batteries have a balancer. It is a device that monitors the voltage on both sides and if the voltage difference exceeds 30 mV, the current from the higher voltage to the lower one will shunt so that the voltages are as close as possible.

    - there is a weather station informing about the current weather parameters (including solar radiation value in W / m2, wind power, etc.)

    - 300W 24V heater in the boiler received protection in the form of a thermostat. It is an NC bimetal thermostat that disconnects the SSR solid-state relay at a water temperature above 70 ° C. The housing is a protective box for two 26650 cells I added a switch, which can be manually disconnected from the heater. Relay mounted on an aluminum profile and bolted to the wall:

    - the previously mentioned 24V 300W heater is now powered by the proprietary MPPT BUCK converter (it adapts the variable current-voltage parameters of the PV panels to the load of the heater). In favorable weather conditions, with cooled panels around noon, the output power from this controller reaches 500W. Conversion efficiency average approx. 95%. This is a solution that is much better than the connection of panels through DD, because here we always use the maximum energy that currently provides the sun, and with direct drive everything works “as-only” only in full sun (generally a topic to develop later).

    - The WiFi router, which is in my studio, is now powered by a 5V stabilizing Buck converter, powered from the Steca Load output of the controller. I did it because by powering the router with the original power supply connected to the inverter off-grid, when I was gone and other household members wanted to use the Internet, they had to turn on the inverter and drained the batteries without sense.

    -In the summer heat season (off season will be disassembled) I installed a portable air conditioner to utilize surplus power in the installation. Hot air outlet directly for ventilation. Cooling power 2.4 kW, electrical power consumed during operation ~ 870W.

    Now it’s time for the part concerning the wind section
    After last year’s defeat with the VAWT type wind turbine (vertical with a toy generator) and the lack of photons in the autumn and winter season, I decided to finish the topic. This time, however, based on the classic HAWT horizontal turbine. After many reflections, I am reading down the information, descriptions, the choice was made on the EW600 model, 24V version distributed in Poland by Sanko Poland. After small price negotiations (I did not want, for example, the Chinese controller, which is usually included), the turbine was purchased. For some time before I installed it, I had it in the workshop and it would be nice to say a few words about this structure … It is a three-phase turbine, rotor diameter 1.73m, 5 blades. The generator itself is quite massive (copper and magnets are not regretted) and weighs about 20kg. Unfortunately, like the Chinese, they made the product … almost good: evil: I do not know if this is due to storage conditions, but on the cast iron hub, which is the main load-bearing structure, there were already serious traces of corrosion: [Well, a new product that the additive is to work all year round in the open. So I would not be myself if I did not dismantle the generator: twisted: An additional motivation was that after some test on the table, there was a friction sign in the electromagnetic gap, between the inner rotor with magnets and stator with windings: – | That’s how it looked in the middle:

    What the spawning in the slot was of course crushed a piece of neodymium, because someone did not think that rolling magnets on the rotor uncover moisture-sensitive and related erosion of the core of the neodymium magnet: roll: The second thing that caught my eye is the bearing of the impeller in size 6205 (of dubious quality, the Chinese C & A brand). Interestingly, in the hub of rotation to the direction of the wind, there was already a branded bearing NSK … Being aware that the later service of the generator will be problematic, regardless of the loss of warranty: Mrgreen: So I decided to fine tune my equipment. At the first fire went the rotor with neodymium, which I thoroughly cleaned and exposed magnets impregnate. Then I exchanged the bearings for the branded Timken type 2RS, the whole was tightly sealed, I got rid of the aforementioned corrosion and assembled everything. Now the time has come to assemble the turbine … Being aware of what mass the wind will be operating, I wanted to fix it firmly so that I could not hold my soul on my shoulder at any storm or windstorm I did not want to put a mast on the plot, pull long wires etc. So I used a ready-made set for assembling turbines of these dimensions to the facade of the building. According to the construction law, within 3m from the outline of the building, you can install such a turbine without any permits. After getting rid of the old antenna mast (a new RTV antenna hit the mast at the chimney where the VAWT turbine used to be before) in the part of the building where I planned to place the turbine I started with a familiar builder for installation. Well, but as in life, the initial assumptions do not usually coincide with the practice: Mrgreen: It turned out that the top part of the building’s wall, in this place, has no embedding in the bearing elements of the building. Well, but such a detail will not miss the desire to finalize the matter: twisted: So you had to strengthen the wall and attach it to the roof beam. That’s how it looks from the outside.

    6 old, PRL, concrete pavement slabs (each weighing ~ 20-25kg), over 100kg of plastering mortar + 3 solid wooden beams, which deny the roof support beams: mrgreen: Fixed by means of M12 threaded rods reinforced strength class 8.8

    The mast is a 3 meter, galvanized pipe of 60mm with a 3mm wall with a welded flange, to which the turbine is screwed.

    The assembly has special rubber (something like the pivot pins in the car) designed to dampen vibrations and not transfer them to the building).

    I think so much in the subject of fixing, time for the electric part. As I mentioned, the output of the generator is three-phase. Three 6mm2 wires went to the famous ventilation duct and went out in the studio: Mrgreen:

    Visible parallel reflection of the right wire from the phases is the entrance to the so-called kill switch. It is nothing but stopping the turbine by closing the phases. The generator’s electromagnetic resistance is then so great that the turbine stops (or spins while heating the cables). This protection is done on an ordinary 3×25A S-ce.

    To be able to use electricity from a three-phase generator, this voltage should be straightened out. Going one by one, entering the three-phase rectifier (samozóbka made for 6pcs Schottky diodes 100V 60A ultra low Vf) + at the output low-impedance capacitors of the long-life type with a total capacity of ~ 11000uF.

    Analog meters (voltmeter + ammeter) showing what is currently coming out of the rectifier bridge.

    The output from the meters comes parallel to the load cascade controller.

    If the output voltage from the generator exceeds 29.2 V, the controller turns on the 1.5 Ohm resistor 900W to accommodate the turbine screwing into dangerously high revolutions.

    Parallel to the output from the meters goes the second power line. This is the input to the boost converter, with a bypass + in the form of a Schottky 60A diode. The boost operation can be switched on or off (when, for example, there is a lot of wind and the turbine will rotate without any problems into the revolutions allowing to receive electricity from the 24-28V voltage ceiling). Switching on / off the booster using the switch with nominal 12V 50A parameters. I had a problem with installing the switch, because it is of considerable size. Finally, he landed in the casing of an old transformer power supply: Mrgreen:

    In the switchgear shown above, in addition to the emergency switch, there are two overcurrent switches by means of which I choose what the wind turbine is to work on (20A to charge the batteries using the PWEC STECA or 40A controller to work on the heater in the boiler).

    At the end of the photo, how the whole presently looks on the wall.

    And on the roof.

    Below are some videos showing the work of the wind system:

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    Last edited by Bocian; 05-31-2018 at 07:05 AM.

  2. #2
    Join Date
    May 2002
    Tonawanda NY

    Default Re: Hybrid installation (wind turbine + PV panels) Renewable energy sources by Bocian

    Very nice write-up I enjoyed reading it.
    Member# 588

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